Monday, 27 October 2014

Budget Kids Parties :Article for Mumsmail Magazine

1.Decide on a budget and then stick to it.
 2. Compare costs of locations. The most economical place is your own home or a park. I threw a bike party for my boys at Essenwood Park where I asked each child to bring their own bicycle, and there was plenty of space for them to ride.
3.Keep a small guest list. There is no need to invite the whole class or neighbourhood but rather a few close friends.
 4.Homemade invitations. You don’t need to be hugely artistic, just a basic idea. You can get ideas from library books or even the Internet.
 5.Decorations, paper plates, serviettes etc you can buy from discount stores. Create your own theme. Sometimes you can use things you already have around the house. For my 2 year olds bug party I just painted paper plates to look like bees, butterflies and ladybirds and decorated my garden.
 6.The food. There is always too much food. Something like hot dogs, popcorn and a few sweets. Plus of course, the cake! You can make your own birthday cake or get one from a home industry that you can decorate with a few toys, or smarties.

 7.Party packs. Again, make your own, you can use brown paper bags or plastic bags. Fill them with a couple of things. Decorate with a sticker or even get your child to decorate them.
 8.Games. Plan a couple of fun games. It helps to control the kids and they have fun. A friend of mine planned a whole “quest “, at a knights and princess party, to save the princess. Buy face-paint and get a family member to paint the kids faces
 9.Now, you have everything you need. It’s the day of the party. Try not to be too busy doing things but rather spending time and having fun with your kids.

Sunday, 19 October 2014

What You Can't Miss in the Louvre, Paris

The Louvre, Paris is a Magnificent Museum Palace surrounded by the picturesque settings of a plethora of beautifully serene, crisp gardens and gorgeous architecture. Located near the Siene River and walking distance to many other ‘Can’t miss’ sites such as the Jardin des Tuileries. The largest museum in the world opened in 1793 with just over 500 treasured masterpieces and now holds over 35 000 uniquely spectacular pieces of art. It is a maze of 3 wings and several levels, 8 cultural departments and numerous exhibition rooms. It can be utterly confusing but there are many systems in place to guide you along the way

For two girls travelling alone in an unknown Mega city can be quite daunting.  I would recommend purchasing the Paris Pass. It gives you access to many of the sightseeing attractions. You can choose a 2 day, 4 day or 6 day pass. It gives you free use of public transport and gives you maps and offers specials at shops and restaurants. Best of all it allows you to skip the endless queues of people standing waiting for entry outside the Louvre and walks straight through like a VIP. If you don’t want to get the Paris Pass then you can walk through the Carousel (The Louvre Mall) across the street and purchase a ticket at the ticket desk. The Museum is open at night till 9:45pm on Wednesdays and Fridays so if you are going to stand in line, I would recommend going after 4pm on those days.

To get to the Louvre you can take the metro or you could walk along the Seine River until you find it. Inside are restaurants and a food court but finding them rather expensive, especially when you are on a budget. I might be tempted to buy a glass of wine or two but I rather like the idea of taking along a small back pack and taking along your own picnic lunch and sitting in the lush gardens.

I looked through the The Louvre  website which helped me quite a lot. It can be translated into English and there is a lot of information about the Louvre and how it is set up making the maze much easier to navigate. When walking through the museum the audio guide is a hit as many of the art descriptions are in French. There is also the option of a guided tour if you are scared of getting lost. The Da vinci code tour is interesting. A guided tour separating fact from the fictional book by Dan Brown.I have to say it is a mammoth of a museum and you can spend a week visiting and still not see everything.

The 8 different sections are at least colour coded to help you along the way. For example Paintings is red, Roman and Greek antiques are blue and Egyptian antiques are green.
On display are some art pieces that you just have to see. The famous Mona Lisa by da Vinci, situated on the first floor in the Italian paintings section. There are large crowds surrounding it all trying to get a picture so it can be difficult to view up close. The Venus de Milo statue which I found out ironically was the symbol for the seal for the American Society of Plastic surgeons. The Madonna on the Rocks by da Vinci, depicting the virgin Mary, John the Baptist and Jesus.  Antonio Canova’s statue Psyche Revived by Cupid’s Kiss, a masterpiece creation.

Essay for the Government Class

Essay for the Government Class

Interdependency is highly important for the public safety sector. For example Hurricane Katrina in 2005 showed the strong interdependencies between the states. Communications and collaboration between the government and private sector are the infrastructure for this to happen. The Public Safety and Homeland security work together to ensure safety for the entire Nation.

The Supreme Courts legitimised the powerful Federal Government in 1937 and its main aim was to provide income to increase social security, aid in building of new roads, as well as providing monetary support to maintain the land and naval forces and arm the militia as well as fund wars. Dual federalism has now taken over where national defence and foreign affairs were solely the business of the Federal Government where as education and family affairs where the business of the State. This gave cause for ‘cooperative federalism’ the each individual state. Each state worked together to achieve an end goal. In the 50’s and 60’s the Federal government provided funding but the States did the building and maintained of the roads.

It may have worked well in the past but there are a few problems with this type of power. With a shortage of funds the federal government impose regulations on the State using their constitutionally given authority. Without the funds these are called ‘Unfunded mandates’ The Unfunded Mandate Act of 1995 ensured that the Federal government is stopped from placing new requirements on states without producing the necessary funding. In 1995 a new problem arose adding to the many constitutional issues between the two powers that be. It had been decided that the national government had abused its authority and by passing a law that prohibited the possession of fire arms near public schools. Starting many questions about the use of power and authority the federal government is given.  There is a ‘Supremacy Clause in the constitution where Federal Law over rides State law if there is a problem. Public funding seems to have slowed down forcing local governments to take initiative and insure basic services are provided. In 2006 in Nevada households contributed more federal taxes than they received.

The Federal Government definitely have the Power of purse but even if one party were to overrule the other, federalism still ensures that the state governments function interdependently. Having 51 different laws for the same thing can bring confusion too and that is where the Federal government’s power can be useful at times.

Bit Bay

Bit Bay

Crypto currency or virtual currency has gained popularity since its conception in 2009. At first there were many controversies around buying crypto currency but it has succeeded in becoming a viable and suitable alternative to other currencies and investing.  Bitcoin is one of the most popular crypto currencies and its follower litecoin are purchasable through a bit coin exchange.

What is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin and Litecoin alike can be easily and immediately transferred. The transactions are public, transparent and traceable. It is designed to function extremely safely with the highest technology ensuring it to be hack proof. Making bitcoin payments is easier than using a credit card as payments are made from a wallet application. The fees are lower than using a credit card or PayPal. It is immune to inflation as it is not run by one particular person or company but rather a number of servers scattered at various points around the globe. It is run by all the users all over the world. While Bitcoin remains a new form of exchange it is widely used in North America and Europe by a progressively large growing number of businesses. Bitcoin can be used online or in stores just like any other currency. It can also be exchanged in physical form. Bitcoin is still undergoing changes for optimisation of use. Bitcoin is not available in all countries.  In areas such as Iceland, Russia and Argentina where there are restrictions on foreign currency. While it is argued that Bitcoin is attractive for fraud criminals we have to bear in mind that  these issues exist with credit card ,cash and wire transfer alike. New bitcoins are created through a process called ‘mining’and individuals are rewarded for their services. The miners process the transactions and use hi tech hardware to exchange bitcoin. Bitcoin operates just like money but is based on mathematical principles rather than tangible ones.

How does Bit Bay work?

Bit Bay is one website exchange that offers easy handling of your bitcoins. It is user friendly and contains clear diagrams. The diagram on the main page shows the rate of exchange, easy for the everyday user to understand. There are also clear table diagrams to show the current buy and sell offers on a live feed.  If you need to sell your virtual money, you choose your amount, the best offers will be found by Bit Bay and then an automatic transaction will take place.  When you buy bitcoins or litecoins , choose an amount and Bit Bay will resource the best options for you and the money will land in your account. If buying or selling, you simply just choose you amounts and your offer will appear on the networks and allow others to make a transaction. Due to real time transactions you will be able to clearly see all of you account transactions as they are happening live making it fast and the most effective way of exchange. The My Wallet application allows you to make exchanges easily though various forex accounts such as BTC, LTC, USD, EUR, or PLN. You can check your account and make payments or withdrawals when you wish. You can use a particular account number to make payments.  Within 24 hours your PLN will appear on your account. Bit Bay have partnered with Dot Pay to can make transactions quick as what you have acquired will appear on your account immediately. Withdrawals are also fast. You choose the account you wish to draw from showing your account number or choosing it from a list. You can receive your money within 20 minutes with a small fee involved. You can control your own withdrawals as you have easy access in viewing them. You are always aware of your withdrawing actions. Cryptowallets make it even simpler as the Bitcoin and Litecoin addresses are generated on a platform allowing you to send your coins directly. Full account History is available for the users of Bit Bay to access and is also downloadable. Every minute statistics are updated where you can view every currency at the current rate of exchange. You can also view all transaction amounts. Online Consulting is an added plus to problem solve and help and guide you through the process. Notifications are sent to inform you of actions on your account set to your own preferences.


Safety is an ensured priority. The bookmark safety feature enables to make changes to your account, to your sms settlements to logging and notifications. You can choose your own personalised settings. Bitcoin transactions are safe as they do not require any personal information. Recent IRS developments are regulating Bitcoin and naming it ‘Property’ instead of Currency for tax purposes adding to its transparency and security.  Quality service is achieved with 24 hour access operating on SSL server platforms. There is high tech encryption coding for wallets, back-ups and data bases for further safety. Transfers are authorised by a 2 employees. All funds are stored in encrypted cold wallets. Password security requires use of strong passwords only. Backups are performed according to the 3-2-1 system. Log in history is logged and safe. There are a number of ways to authenticate your account, via SMS or Authenticator Google

The future of Bitcoin

It is a very new method of payment and as always with anything new there are bound to be critics but as there maybe risks involved there are also a vast number of opportunities. The analysts of the financial world are calling it the next Pay Pal. Using digital currency is the wave of the future which we have already stepped into. What makes it so is the fact that any two people in the world can transact with ease as there are no fees or bank accounts involved.  The rules of Bitcoin are set from the Market and not by government making it stable against currencies the rise and fall with inflation. In the future it is predicted that bitcoin miners can be supported by small transaction fees alone. Off to a slow start Bitcoin has boomed in 2013 rising 5 000% wish is a sign of things to come.



Business excellence in Automotive Industries

Business excellence in Automotive Industries

The Automotive Industry is booming and changes with the economic climate, therefore investing in the correct areas is critical. Focusing on Development, Training and Fostering of partnership between dealerships to increase sales in the automobile sector in the nation and internationally is the ultimate goal. Its current partnership with government is supporting the industry, making it stronger and ensuring its growth after the recent recession.

·       Customer Commitment

Dealing well with customers is essential to business excellence and growth. Providing sufficient training for staff is then vital. The socio-economic needs of the consumer need to be met. Catering for the financial needs of customers is a necessity in today’s economic climate.  This requires a good purchase price as well as maintenance plans.  Understanding the social needs of the buyer will help you serve them more effectively.

·       Quality Control

Safety is a very important feature in purchasing a vehicle for everyone. It is a huge priority for the automotive industry to ensure the driver’s safety and that of his/her passengers.  Each new vehicle and model need to undergo vigorous testing. Each Car should undergo inspection at each individual dealership to further add to the quality control.  Storage of vehicles is therefore also an important factor to remember for the correct conditions to preserve and protect the cat prior to purchase.

·       Supply and Demand

This is one area that can be overlooked. Cost efficient production and distribution will ensure lower running costs. Supply and demand needs to be maintained at a healthy rate. Over production can decrease profit and overheads will be higher. Underproduction too will cause delays and unhappy customers.

·       Strong Management

Choosing correct management is Key as they will be involved in the day to day running of the business. Hard workers who show initiative and show strengths in being creative in marketing are good choices for this type of industry. Management need to be people friendly and have the ability to control staff. Effective communication between the different infrastructures within the automotive industry is the glue that will hold everything together. For example distribution needs to communicate on an ongoing basis with the dealership and vice versa.

·       Investing in technology

An innovative system in the automotive industry is what is needed for it to strive for business excellence. Technology is the force that drives the automotive industry and must therefore be sought out, invested in and taught.  Investing in new technology and the relevant training surrounding it in the automotive industry will increase its competitive power. Investment must target areas such as new development of technologies that will improve production.  Taking a look a low emission options and environmentally friendly options will further increase the edge of the sector and ensure future success. 

Implementing these key ingredients successfully will ensure a profitable outcome. It will provide increasing employment opportunities. It will ensure safety on the roads and provide safe vehicles for the DSA practical. It will provide enough cars equal to the number of people that are driving on the roads. 

Drum programme to create hip hop beats

Drum programme to create hip hop beats

What is the best way to make a beat? It is all about preference but with evolving times there is a plethora of technology available. Choosing a drum software program can help you to be more efficient with your sound mixing as well as give you the added benefits that come with, just the library of sound choices alone in inviting.

BTV Solo

Installation is easy and it can be controlled with a MIDI controller or with your laptop keys. The sound is impeccably clear as well as equalised layers and has cool effects. Each sound can be tuned and the pitch adjusted. Additional effects are also included. You can export your projects in high sound quality.BTV Solo has a user friendly interface. It allows for 16 track sequencing, full control over every pad, kit changing and individual samples. It has low latency and ability to change between kits with fluidity. You can arrange your creations into song mode too. The sound can reach 8 octaves. You can build beats from included samples. It has Autochop for cutting segments and much more.

Beat Machine

Beat machine was specifically designed for hip hop producers with VSTi/AU plugin for MAC or PC offering an authentic and raw Boom Bap /Hip Hop sound. It contains a huge library of hip hop beats to choose from as well as 500 classic drum kits. It includes 100 kit signatures from popular artists. It contains over 1000 drum samples. It has built in analogue style reverberations, flexible pitch and drive controls. With very low CPU usage which is perfect for tablet of laptop. You have options to program manually; use a MIDI or USB controller or a keyboard.


Battery is a bold drum machine software for fast and speedy work with its added new features in the Battery 4 edition. With 143 kits to choose from, this massive library is filled with electronic and urban styles. It boasts being the ultimate studio choice for creative drum beat production. It has a hi-tech but user friendly interface. It contains 70 drum kits that you can drag from a tab and drop into your work space. Sound wrangler gives you 7 sample modes. It has many transient and equalising effects. It features signature sounds from artists such as Zombie Disco Squad and Starkey.

Spark VDM

Spark VDM brings the user 30 drum effects in one drum machine software. It promises to catch the unique sounds of the instruments. It captures the soul of the TR series and the distinct percussion sound of the Roland CR-78. Ideal for live performance the Spark VDM contains an XY pad, slicer, and real time automation. It has 14 effects including compressor, chorus, delay, distortion and various others. Track creation is simple with Sparks Step Sequencer. Its 16 separate audio outputs make it very versatile. It has over a whopping 1300 pre-programmed beats. It has a high sound quality and high resolution sampling. You can tweak your drum sounds in a variety of ways with unending combinations.


Drumlab is drum layering made extremely simple and it offers percussion compounds. It has an intuitive interface that mixes acoustic samples with electric themes. You can make copious amounts of drum beats with a ready mix system and is easy and fast to use. Drum lad partnered with producer Kenny Barto to produce exceptional sound quality. It consists of 80 different electronic layers from classic to modern. It has over 90 unique drum kits and a variety of genres. It features different effects, such as a drum compressor solid EQ and Solid bus comp. It contains a total of 58 different acoustic sound samples.

When purchasing a drum programme first make sure it is compatible with your particular devices and that it suits all your sound mixing requirements. You want something that is efficient and fast, user friendly with all the latest in intuitive software so that you do not have to mess with the bass and synthesiser. It is perfect if you cannot afford studio time but like to mix your own sounds. Every drummer can have their own studio at home and be their own producer. Even a beginner can pick up the software and learn a thing or two.

12 of the best VST plug-ins for producing music

12 of the best VST plug-ins for producing music

Virtual Studio Technology is taking over and home producing is becoming a cheaper option for many artists as well as allowing them to create on their own schedule and not restricted to studio time. It is an ever expanding new wave transforming the sound of music. Here are 12 of some of the best VST plug-ins for producing music.


·       TAL-Bassline-101

The TAL-Bassline-101is a monophonic base synthesiser that creates authentic analogue sounds. It is designed to be used with very extreme settings. The bass line generates all wave forms in real time. It has zero feedback delay, a powerful step sequencer, Original (RC) and linear mode and more than 300 pre-sets.

·       Decimort

Decimort adds a vintage, hip hop flavour to your sounds. It has analogue filters with adjustable resonance and two independent processing paths in stereo mode as well as a MIDI learn function.

·       SSi Pro Compresser

This is a high quality processing unit. With good sound engine, very low CPU usage, and an excellent GUI design. It contains presets to get you started. It is compatible with a variety of hosts such as Alberton live, FL Studio and Energy XT.

·       Octagon

Octagon is a creative and fun spectral effect that can do reverse time delays and create complex rhythms. It has 8 tempo-synchronised delay lines and 8 resonant band filters. It has an easy to use interface with colour coding features.

·       Multi Drive Pedal

For a genuine rock sound and a selection of 8 of the most famous drive pedals, Multi Drive Pedal is the ultimate in rock sound for your personal studio. With a selection of Overdrive, Super drive, Metal tone, Treble boost, BAT distortion, XXL distortion and screamer.

·       Beat Machine

Beat Machine is a hip hop plug in for authentic drum sounds. It includes 500 premixed kits and over 1000 drum samples. It has easy stereo for output options and low CPU usage. It has built in flexible pitch and drive controls.

·       Pro EQ

Pro EQ is a high quality analogue processor is modelled on the classic desk EQ of the past. It has 4 bands, high and low pass filters, 29 presets for various instruments and VU meters to monitor input and output signals. It has tube control for subtle to extreme distortions.

·       Mastering Limiter

It is designed to maximise the level of the digital signal and the resolution of your file. It has a high tech algorithm that allows the user capability to precisely control the resolution. It is designed for digital editing, and multimedia. Mastering Limiter is recommended to be used last in the processing chain due to its high standards and precision.

·       Drift

Drift is and audio unit effect plug in for making chaotic modulation on a simple, user friendly, high contrast interface. It has different sound effects to optimise your music sound. Its two dimensional fractal generator allows for variable speed and smoothness.

·       Nebula Space Reverb

Reverb is the most commonly used effect in sound production and for every producer a must have is a selection of reverb effects. It can create environmental sounds as well as drum beats. When partnered with other complex loops an endless number of sound options can be created. It has unique analogue characteristics, GUI with user friendly controls. It has full automation capacity, VU metering and excellent presets.

·       Slicex

Slicex is a new form of slicing your material. Its beat detection algorithms enable it to make them independently playable. It offers time stretching capabilities. It offers recording and playback of slices.

·       Virtual Tape Machine

Recording into metal tape gives a unique and original sound quality. It is the most highly advanced analogue tape sound application in sound producing. It is a digital replication of a tape recording 16 track machine.

There are many more choices, so best is to see you preferences and personalises needs. You want maximum performance without the maximum cost. With all this equipment at your disposal you are bound to create some awesome hip hop beats or rock tracks. There is no limit to what you can achieve. Play, experiment, have fun with all that modern music and VST technology has to offer.

Phuket Beaches

Phuket Beaches

With a large number of beaches in Phuket which one do you go to for the day? It is all up to your personal preference, if you want to experience the culture or just have a secluded private beach experience, Phuket has it all.

1.     Nai Harn Beach

Situated in a protected bay and away from local development Nai Harn Beach is a tourist favourite. It has a unique local feel and the 2 rows of deck chairs and umbrellas give it that luxurious edge.

2.     Kata Beach

White sandy beaches and clear blue see by day and exotic bars by night! Kata beach is actually divided into 3 beaches , Kata Centre, Kata South and Kata Back Road.

3.     Patong Beach

Patong is an extremely busy and crowded, loud a colourful making it one of those beaches that some adore yet others wanting a more private holiday will avoid. Food shopping and spas are nearby for your enjoyment.

4.     Karon Beach

The second longest beach in Phuket but not very crowded. It is divided into 3 beaches, Karon Centre, The Lake and Beachfront Road. Karon centre is an old beach and along it are some well established restaurants. The Karon Beach Temple is a great attraction.

5.     Surin Beach

It is popular due to its clear blue water and plenty of dining areas. A perfect beach for Jet Ski’s but the noise can be annoying for swimmers. The Twin Palms Hotel is nearby and Catch Beach Club is a beautiful must see beach bar.

6.     Laem Singh Beach

Perfect in good and bad weather, Laem Singh Beach is quaint with its leaning green palm trees, making you feel as if you have the whole beach to yourself. It used to be a remote beach and hard to access but has become a popular tourist attraction.

7.     Bangtao Beach

It is situated halfway between the airport and Patong Beach. It is always associated with a large resort complex, ‘Laguna Phuket’. Near Bangtao Beach is a nice village where there are restaurants, shops and spa’s.

8.     Rawai Beach

It is situated at the end of Phuket Island and is not a swimming beach but offers beautiful scenic surroundings and delicious must try seafood. Eat your seafood on mats on the floor, like the locals and feel a part of the Phuket culture.

9.     Kamala Beach

Hidden away without much signage, Kamala Beach is surprisingly still quite popular. If you drive too fast you can miss the entrance to the beach so drive slowly when looking for it. It has fantastic dining choices and an amazing night life, as well as Phuket Fantasea Park which is an amazing show with elephants and acrobats located in a park nearby.

10. Naithon Beach

Far from the crowds this is the perfect setting for a secluded beach experience. Parking you car is easy, and there are no noisy jet ski’s in sight. Across the road are restaurants and shops. 

11. Mai Khao Beach

A long secluded beach, there is not much there, no deck chairs or umbrella’s.  It is erfect for a romantic stroll on the beach. Walk 11 kilometres along the beach and you may see 2 or 3 fishermen at best!

12. Paradise Beach

An expensive and busy beach! You have to pay 100 baht to get in to the beach. It is gorgeous, surround by 2 small bays. There are quite a few different paths to take and restaurants to find along the way.


The Architecture of Computer hardware, systems software & networking

The Architecture of Computer hardware, systems software & networking.



An Overview of Computer Systems

Chapter 1: Computers and Systems


Computer Architecture and Hardware operation

Chapter 2: Little Man computer

Chapter 3: CPU and Memory

Chapter 4: CPU and Memory Design Enhancement and Implementation

Chapter 5: Modern Computer systems


Network and Data Communications

Chapter 6: Overview of Network and Data Communications

Chapter 7: Ethernet and TCP/IP networking

Chapter 8: Communication Channel Technology


Software component

Chapter 9: Operating Systems Overview

Chapter 10: The user view of Operating systems

Chapter 11: Internal Operating Systems




An Overview of Computer Systems

Chapter 1: Computers and Systems

1.     Web Browser Application

The user uses the mouse pad to click on the browser URL and a page request message is sent via HTML through the communication channel till it reaches the web server.

2.     Input-Process-Output Model (IPO)

2.1 Input is the use of the keypad, mouse, scanner or punch cards

2.2. Processing is the use of the CPU executing the particular computer program

2.3 Output is via a printer, scanner or fax machine

2.4 Storage is through the hard drive, optical media discs or magnetic tape

3. Computer System Layout

3.1 The Internet consists of the web server, Data base server, Apps server and Web Browser which all goes through a firewall.

3.2 Order Fulfilment which involves warehousing, inventory, purchasing and shipping

3.3 Sales which consist of order entry, services, web design, and support.

3.4 Finance including financial planning, accounts payable, accounts receivable,  accounting and credit.

3.4 Marketing that includes research planning, advertising and sales.

4. Computer System Components

4.1 Hardware which provides input and output, controls input and output storage components and process data by executing instructions

4.2 Software gives the hardware instructions on what to do

4.3 Data is the representation of facts

4.4 Communications shares data and processing between systems


Computer Architecture and Hardware operation

Chapter 2: Little Man Computer

Created by Stuart Madnick, the Little Man Computer (LMC) is programmed in decimal code not binary code. It contains 100 mailboxes (memory) and each mailbox has 3 digit data. There is also an input and output box at the ends for sending and receiving data. Data is loaded into the mailboxes and then signals Little Man to start executing the information.

The execution program is as follows:

1.     Look for the number mailbox that contains the instruction

2.     Collect the instruction

3.     Set the program counter to receive the next instruction

4.     Decode the instruction

5.     Collect data with number found in previous step

6.     Execute the instruction

7.     Store new data in the mailbox from where the data was collected

8.     Stop or repeat the cycle

The Calculator

1.     Decimal keypad

2.     Addition and Subtraction keys

3.     3 digit display

4.     Result indicator

Instruction Codes Table

Copy number from mailbox with number (xy) to calculator
Replace the number in the mailbox at (xy) with current calculator value
Add the value in the mailbox at (xy) to calculator
Subtract the value in the mailbox at (xy) from the number in the calculator
Copy the number in the input basket to the calculator
Copy the value of the calculator to the output basket
Stop processing
Skip the next instruction if number is negative
Skip the next instruction if number is zero
Skip the next instruction if the number is positive
Re-set counter to (xy)


Chapter3: CPU and Memory

CPU (Central processing unit)consists of:

3.1 ALU: (arithmetic/logic unit)

The ALU arithmetic and logical instructions are executed via circuitry. It performs simple mathematical equations addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The logical operation is usually a comparison that is equal to, less than or greater than concepts.

3.2 CU: control unit

This contains circuitry that uses electric signals that instructs the whole computer to execute messages. It controls the ALU and Memory.

3.3 Interface Unit

This moves data between the CPU and other hardware. The BUS is a bundle of wires that help carry signals between components.

Memory is the short term storage for CPU calculations and data.

Primary Storage, Main Memory, Internal Storage and RAM (random access memory) are other names for memory. Memory works with the CPU but is a separate entity. It only stores information as long as the program is in operation. Memory allows faster access to the required information.

Some examples of memory are:

1.     Ram

2.     Rom

3.     Cache

4.     Dynamic Ram

5.     Static Ram

6.     Flash Memory

7.     Memory sticks

8.     Virtual Memory

9.     Video Memory

10.  BIOS

Chapter 4: CPU and Memory: Design, Implementation, and Enhancement

4.1  CISC and RISC Architectures

CISC (Complex Instructions set computer) allows for complex instructions and requires many clock cycles to execute

RISC (Reduced Instruction set computer) reduces memory access by registers and simplifies instructions

4.2  VLIW and EPIC Architectures

VLIW (very long word instructions) based on 128-bit instructions called Molecule which is divided into 4 32-bit atoms. You cannot write programming in VLIW.

EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computer) designed by Intel for IA-64 processors. Sequences are the responsibility of the programmer.

4.3  Memory enhancements.

Cache Memory is not visible to the user and is set between CPU and main Memory. It is high speed memory. Pentium III provides 2 levels of cache.

Memory interleaving is a method of dividing memory into several parts

Wide Path Memory Access provides for bigger bus data and a larger register between CPU and Main Memory.

4.4  Modern CPU processing enhancements

Timingis the process of synchronising the fetch to execute steps to the system clock pulses. The clock controls when the next step will take place. Multiprocessing increases performance

Pipelineimproves CPU performance by allowing overlapping of instructions. There are two types of Pipeline, Scalar processing and Superscalar processing.

Scalarprocessing is a pipeline method where only one command can be executed at a time. It divides the CPU into three main parts, the instruction fetch unit, and the instruction decode unit and the Instruction Execution method.

Superscalarprocessing is a pipeline method where more than one command can be executed at the same time; containing several execution units it can complicate the CPU.

Out of Order processing where a later instruction may depend on the result of an earlier instruction. Hazard and dependency is therefore corrected.

Branch Processing processes ahead of subsequent instructions.

Conflict Resources occur when instructions are executed in parallel and are using the same set of registers.

4.5   CPU implementation

CPU are implemented in 2 ways, Conventional Hardware implementation and Micro-programmed implementations. Conventional Hardware implementation executes virtually every instruction. Fast instructions are executed. However a disadvantage is that is a complex CPU hardware design.


Chapter 5: Modern Computer Systems

In 1937 the MARK 1 is built, it used electric relays. ABC was then built in 1939 and was the first electric computer using vacuum tubes. In1943-1946 the ENIAC was the first general purpose digital computer. In 1945 the Von Neumann architecture proposed was created and is still the standard for modern day computers. The transistor was created in 1947. In 1952 the EDVAC and IAS was made. Early computers were controlled by using switches for each bit but had no operating systems. Operating systems were first built in 1954 by General Motors Research Laboratory for their IBM 701 computer. Other early operating systems were FMS (Fortran monitor system), IBSYS and SOS (shared operating system)

UNIX then came on to the scene and used assembly language and developed a hierarchical file system, the shell system, document formatting and tools for processing.

GUI ‘s changed modern computer systems further when Doug Englebart, of the Stanford Research institute invented windows and a mouse interface in the 1960’s ,in the 1970’s Xerox PARC creates a windowing system for the Dynobook project.  Then Steve Jobs made history in the 1980’s by developing Apple and Macintosh.


In 1982 the first stand alone personal computer was created using disk operating system MS –DOS, and PC-DOS, then later new versions of DOS were added with hierarchical file storage and file redirection.




Network and Data communications

Chapter 6: Overview of Network and Data Communications.

Data Communication refers to the sending and receiving of data between 2 computers and communication between a computer network and a data network. This connection is achieved via cable or wireless devices. The internet is a computer network. A system of different networks all connected to or to each other or to network peripherals such as a printer. This facilitates sharing of information. 


Chapter 7: Ethernet/IP Networking

Ethernet is an industrial Ethernet Network that mixes Ethernet technology with different (CIP) Common Industrial Protocols. It transfers I/O via UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Messaging, uploading and downloading via TCP. Change of state monitoring via UPD. It uses unicast, multicast and broadcast settings and making use of PORT numbers for messaging.

In Network Architecture there can be one or more systems acting as Server. The client then makes a request from the Server. The Servers take and process request. The systems work at the same level called peers and work in a point to point connection.  There can also be a mis which involves using both types.


Chapter 8: Communication Channel Technology

The communication channel is characterised by signal method, bandwidth which is the amount of data transmitted, direction in which the signal can flow, noise characteristics, and medium used.

Signalling transmission is divided into analogue and digital. Analogue uses waveforms to carry data and digital uses electrical volts, currents or on/off switches.

Point to point transmission via simplex, half-duplex of full-duplex. Simplex passes data through one channel, half-duplex transmits in one direction at a time and full-duplex transmits in both directions at the same time. Multipoint transmissions message to all connected receivers. Multiplexing carries many messages at once. Wireless networks, telephones, microwave communications, radio and sound are analogue signals.


Software component

Chapter 9: Operating Systems Overview

The operating system is the software that manages the computer hardware. Its purpose is to provide and provide a efficient way for the user to execute programs. The hardware must be compatible with the appropriate software. It controls the execution on an application. The operating system is a set of programs that run the computer. It performs tasks such as recognise input from the keyboard and keeping track of files. It controls the use of the system resources between user and task. An interface between the programmer and the hardware that enables easy coding

In 1962 MIT Project Mac creating a time sharing Operating System called CTSS and shortly after that Multics was developed. In1963 Burroughs developed the MCP (Master Control Program) that included many of the operating system features used today. In 1964 OS/360 was developed by IBM and it included batch processing of programmes.

Chapter 10: The user view of Operating systems

This is the external view of the Operating System and is the layer of software on top of the hardware. The user view varies by the interface being used. The operating system is designed for ease of use and free resource use. Most users make use of a monitor, keyboard, mouse and a system unit. Users sit at a main frame or Personal computer.

Chapter 11: Internal Operating Systems

Internal Operating systems modify programs and data files and provide access to the user for translating the program and provide a program to move the code to the computer’s memory. It also provides the platform to handle the I/O programming details. The resource manager that controls and managed the CPU, Memory and i/o devices.


The I/O traffic controller keeps track of the devices. Each I/O device has a different handler. The I/O subsystem consists of buffering and cache in the memory component and and device driver interface.

11.1 The Assembler

The Assembler input provides an assembly language program while the output provides an object program for executing commands and contains the information the programmer needs to perform the task.

11.2 The Compiler

The Compiler processes high level languages such as COBOL, ALGOL, PL/I and FORTRAN. A compiler is a source code that produces a corresponding object. An interpreter is the program that appears to change the source code.

11.3 The Loader

A loader prepares an object program for execution with a load. There are a number of loading schemes; absolute, direct linking and relocating. The loader will load, then relocate and then link the object program. It puts programs into memory to get them ready for execution. The assembler outputs the machine language translation of a program to another device in a simple loading system and a loader is placed in the centre. The loader puts the machine language of the users’ program into memory and gives it the control. The loader program is much smaller than the assembler and thus provides more available space for the users program